Love only grows by sharing. You can only have more for yourself by giving it away to others. More »


Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning. More »


The true sign of intelligence is not knowledge but imagination. More »


A person who never made a mistake never tried anything new. More »


Friendship marks a life even more deeply than love. Love risks degenerating into obsession, friendship is never anything but sharing More »


Great minds discuss ideas; average minds discuss events; small minds discuss people. More »


Download ‘Modul Guru Pembelajar’ Now

After waiting for a long time, we now can access the printed Modul Guru Pembelajar. First, download the module from the link below by clicking the title of the module one by one. Second, open the downloaded file in pdf format and then enjoy the full learning session. You may print the files, but each of them may consist of thousands of pages.

Please read, scan, and discuss all material in the module while you are waiting for the next instructions. For further information, please contact Mr. Dedi.

Download all modules at once (Zip 20,30 MB), click here.

Modul KK A1 B Ing
Modul KK A2 B Ing

Modul KK B1 B Ing
Modul KK B2 B Ing

Modul KK C1 B Ing
Modul KK C2 B Ing

Modul KK D1 B Ing
Modul KK D2 B Ing

Modul KK E1 B Ing
Modul KK E2 B Ing

Modul KK F1 B Ing
Modul KK F2 B Ing

Modul KK G1 B Ing
Modul KK G2 B Ing

Modul KK H1 B Ing
Modul KK H2 B Ing

Modul KK I1 B Ing
Modul KK I2 B Ing

Modul KK J1 B Ing
Modul KK J2 B Ing

Good luck…


Twoodcrafthe term woodcraft (or wood-lore) denotes skills and experience in matters relating to living and thriving in the woods—such as hunting, fishing, and camping—whether on a short- or long-term basis. Traditionally, woodcraft pertains to subsistence lifestyles, with implications of hunting-gathering. In more recent times, and in developed countries, it relates more to either outdoor  or survivalism.

Whether traditional or modern, woodcraft may be roughly equated       to the phrase “living off the land”.

A partial list of recreational woodcraft techniques might include knowledge of wildlife behavior, identifying and utilizing wild plants and animals (especially for food), camp cooking, orienteering (including hiking skills and use of a map and compass), fire making (including procurement of firewood), selecting and preparing a campsite, lashing and knot techniques, the use of tents and wilderness first aid.

The Scouting movement has adopted woodcraft techniques as a core skill set known as scoutcraft.

In the United States, woodcraft techniques in a military context are taught as part of SERE (Survival, Evasion, Resistance and Escape) training.

Traditional woodcraft has particular importance in American folklore, especially that relating to the early American frontier.In the UK, the Woodcraft Folk are an organisation founded on the principles of woodcraft.

A Holiday in my village

my vilageMy village is around 200 kilometers away from my home i.e. where I live right now and it took almost three and a half hours to reach there by our car. We often used to go there when I was a kid. But I haven’t been there for 6 or 7 years. So I really was excited to see how it looks now.

The moment I entered the village I found some of things very similar as I last saw them…no change…like the same unpaved mud road which has a watercourse on one side and big deep furrows on the other side. The first thing that I remembered from my childhood memories was this road. It scared me both the times. But other things were changed….not completely, but I found them slightly different. Like the bushes were overgrown undermining the beauty of the watercourse.

The small bridge over the watercourse was cracked. Everything appeared smaller than before except the paddy field. I love the paddy field. I used to play i-spy there with other kids. It used to be my favorite place as a kid too. This time also I spent most of my time looking at the beautiful green stretch. I have taken some shots.

Beautiful na. I felt so good to be there…to see all of it again. As I am not a kid anymore and i can’t go around and play in the field…so I missed my childhood. But I am grateful to be there once again.

Procedure Crispy Fried Shrimps

Ingredients :

For the sauce:

  1. 1/2 cup sugar
  2. 1/2 cup rice vinegar
  3. 1 teaspoon Thai or Vietnamese fish sauce
  4. 1 tablespoon red pepper flakes
  5. 1 clove garlic, minced on microplane
  6. 1 tablespoon juice from 1 lime
  7. sliced scallions or chives

For the shrimp:

  1. 12 colossal shrimp (about 1 pound), peeled and deveined
  1. 1 cup all-purpose flour
  2. 2 eggs, beaten
  3. 1 1/2 cups panko bread crumbs
  4. 1/4 cup sesame seeds
  5. 1 teaspoon Japanese hot pepper (togarashi) or 1/2 teaspoon cayenne pepper
  6. Kosher salt and freshly cracked black pepper
  7. 1.5 quarts peanut oil

Procedures :

  1. put sugar in small heavy-bottomed saucepot and add 2 tablespoons water to form a wet sand consistency. Cook over high heat until sugar turns a pale golden color, about 5 minutes total. Immediately add vinegar (mixture will bubble rapidly). Add fish sauce, pepper flakes, and garlic, and cook, stirring with a whisk until reduced to 1/2 cup and mixture is slightly syrupy. Remove from heat and allow to cool. Add lime juice and chives. Store sauce in covered container in the fridge for up to 2 weeks.
  1. Place shrimp flat on cutting board, leg-side down and press down until it lies flat and straight. Insert a wooden skewer from the tail to the head. Shrimp should be as straight as possible on skewer.
  1. Set up a breading station: Put flour in one shallow dish, beaten eggs in second, and combine panko, sesame seeds, pepper, 1 teaspoon salt, and 1/2 teaspoon black pepper in third shallow dish. Working one skewer at a time, dredge lightly in flour and shake off excess. Dip in egg and turn until evenly coated. Place in bread crumb mixture and press with bread crumbs until well-coated. Repeat with remaining skewers.
  1. Heat oil in a large wok or Dutch Oven over high heat until it registers 350 degrees on an instant-read thermometer. Add shrimp and cook, flipping and agitating regularly until golden brown and crispy and shrimp is cooked through. Transfer shrimp to paper-towel lined baking sheet and turn to blot out oil. Season with salt. Wipe skewers with clean paper towel. Serve immediately with sauce for dipping.

How the Elephant got it’s Long Nose

elephantMany, many years ago a massive, smelly elephant went to visit his mates in the African Jungle. When the elephant visited his mates the zebra giggled “Have you had a bath today elephant?”

Then the elephant ran away from the zebra and the crocodile. The elephant started to sob. “Why oh why do I have to be very smelly!” the elephant murmured. Every animal started to laugh at him because he had a very smelly back! The elephant just couldn’t help it.

Then he strolled down very, very slowly to the lake. As the elephant was drinking the ground shook and two gigantic, enormous rocks tumbled down the hill and splashed into the lake. Then the enormous rocks floated towards the elephant’s nose and trapped it. He pulled and he pulled until he got his nose out. After that the massive rocks floated away and then the fat elephant finally got a drink & then he realised he could reach the water.

After that he looked at his reflection in the water and his eyes went bigger and bigger. He started to jump excitedly explaining. “I’ve got a long trunk I can wash my back!” After that he started to tell all the other animals but before he did that he started to wash his back. He was so exited he started to skip all the way to tell all his friends.

Then they all had a party to celebrate with elephant because he was a lovely elephant! Then he was skipping down to the lake with all his friends and ran and made a big , massive SPLASH!


A Story of the Chicken and the Hen

images (1) They were very hard up,for times were bad in the theatre world,and nobody seemend to want either one or the other.but no one knew it except themselves.they used to look helplessly into each other’s eyes every morning,when he would come up from his dingy little home to where she lived,to see if,micawber-like,anything had turned up.

“Nothing,chicken?”-his name for her.

“Nothing,hen!”-her name for him

And another hopeless day would drag along.

So it went for months.

They had been pals for years –players together all over the world-won together-rejoiced togerher suffered together –and he had watched over her just like an old hen over her one chicken.

So she called him”hen-mother,hen”Hen”forshort.and now things looked very blue.

In early life he had been at sea,but drifted away into the Australian bush,while his ship lay at sandridge pier and a new rush broke out.the rush was way up north on the palmer;plenty of gold and lots of fever;he got some of both,and it became a question whether to get rich and die or get he “humped his drum”to.yhecoast.but he had seen day camping at noon,he knocked a piece of stone off the cap of a reef which showed color freely.

Gold had come too late!he crawled away along the ghastly track through maytown to hell’s gates and on to cppktown where he stowed away on a ship bound south.

They played together in Australia years afterwards,and he often spent an hour telling her of the old life on the palmer river.they did well made money and came back to London,where things prospered for them both,until one awful November day when she said she “felt gray”-and for three month doctors watched her hanging between life and death.every night on his way to the theatre he would look up into the murky London sky and pray god for her life.and god  was very good and listened,and he thanked god from his was soon after this that things got so bad,and they came across a man they had known in the colonies and all got to talking gold.

“I know where there’s gold,”said hen.


“Palmer;s abandoned years ago”.

“So was bendigo once.”

“How do you know gold’s up there?”

“I’ve seen it.”

“But it’s all worked our.”

“I don’t think so.”

And they looked over Dr.jack’s latest geological map and found no reef marked where hen said there was gold.

“There’s a fortune up there.”Hen put his finger on a spot that lay about twenty-six miles to the southeast of maytown.

“Why don’t you go and get it if you’re so sure?”

And the man laughed.

And the “Chicken” sighed.

And the “Hen” folded up the map and put it way.

But a few weeks later,atthe”Stores”he and she were buying a few cheap necessaries for some one who going into the tropics.

“I want a pillow of some sort-anything will do,”said hen.

There were many sorts to choose from,but all seemend very dear,theythought,for money was very scarce.that friend whom they had told had lent hen enoughto get out to the palmer.

“I want you to have a comfortable pillow,Hen.what does it matter – a few shillings – and it will be so much better.flock gets into such horrid lumps – and it’s so hot and study – horse-hair will keep you cool.”

“How much are these horse-hair pillows”asked hen.

“A guinea, sir.”

Hen looked up and drew a quick breath.

Chicken sighed.

“That sttlesit!Flock – three and six – will do for me.”

Chicken turned away and seemed very interested in an advertisement of somebody’s soap.When she thought no one noticed,she quickly brushed her cheek with her handkerchief.She had a horse-hair pillow at home.

But Hen-mother had seen.hen they left the “Stores,” he chaffed about feather pillows and such luxuries,and told her that a clean sheet of stringy-bark with a saddle for a pillow made as comfortable a bed as anyone could possibly want in the bush.

He was going back again – after twenty years – to look for gold. It seemed a wild isea, a hopeless sort of scheme ,this going out to Australia,but they had talked it over and thrashed it out and is seemed best. And so one day he came up in the morning for the last time.It was ten o’clock,and his ship was to sail from the albert dock at twelve.

For the first time in twelve years they were parted.

On the ship he commenced a diary and the opening words were : January 18, 1900. The most miserable day he left, he read through dim eyes.

“My hen mother I couldn’t see anyone I just locked my door and threw myself down on my bed and buried my face in the pillow an then I thought of your poor old head on the horrid flock pillow and my heart broke…”

He had an old photograph of her he always carried and, sitting in his tent at the Laura River thousands of miles away, he loocked at it and kissed the beautiful face it pictured to him.

Time went on. Fortune seemed turning for them both. She had one or two good offersin London and wrote out, “Don’t worry, my hen, about me. If the piece is a success I shall be all right. “and it was a success.

And he wrote home to her, “I am in luck. I found the old spot where I camped years ago and broke the stone. The country is wild, unutterably wild and lonely. There is nothing within miles of me. I am absolutely alone. I have worked on the reef, which is a very fine one, and shows gold freely. It is on the top of a spur, and the other day I was fossicking in the gully below when I came across some nice little pieces of gold. But it is lonely – lonely – lonely beyond words.

Months went by until one day she received a cable from reuter and her heart stood still. She trembled and hesitated to open it for it was from australi. What had happened?

She shut herself up and turned the key in the door, then knelt down by the desk where she kept all her letters and  murmured, “god grant there is nothing wrong!” then she opened the envelope and read the cable.


Have cabled you one thousand pounds today paris bank. Well. Hen.”

Then she cried.

She didn’t know what do she felt so happy. She had been a bit ill, but all that seemed to vanish and everyone at the theatre that night though she was


The gully turned out to be a regular bonanza and for weeks he worked on alone until there was no more to pan.

At first glance he used to hide the gold in his flock pillow, which had got into hard lumps itself, hardly distinguishable from the nuggets. And as the pile grew and there were no more soft spots for his head, he used to laugh and think, “I wonder if chicken would rather I kept my pillow now than change change it for a horse hair one?

He didn’t know how much gold there was. When the pillow got too full, he dug a hole under his camp and buried it all. Then he went In to maytown and told the warden he had found gold on the creek.

There was a rush and the papers heard of it. “revival of the palmer,” announced one. “big find near maytown,“ another.

Hen pegged out a fifty acre lease of the reef and called it the “hen and chicken.” Then in a little time he got some gunny bags, filled them with stone frome the reef and in each he put another bag full of the gold he had won from the gully and buried in his tent. Chinamen “packed” these bags down to the Laura River for him from there they were never out of his reach to cook town, where he sailed on the same ship with them for Brisbane.Here he opened the big bags and took out the little bags of gold before sending the quartz to Aldershot to be crushed and assayed.

A couple of weeks later the sensation of the evening paper in Brisbane was as follows;

Two tons of stone from the “ Hen an chicken” reef near cannibal creek, on the palmer gold field, were crushed at Aldershot for the phenomenal return of 757 ounces of retorted gold.This reef was taken up by a gentleman from London who,in the early days of the palmer discovered it while tramping on his way to cooktown, to which place he was proceeding, almost dying from fever. This wat twenty years ago, and the gentlemen in question had the good luck recently to rediscover the reef which is in the wildest part of the ranges to the S. E. of maytown, and which had eluded the notice of prospectors from that day until is recent discovery. Provision has been made to float the “Hen and chicken” into company in London,a very high price having been offered for it on the advice of awell-known London expert,who was fortunate enough to be in cooktown lately on his way to examine some new guinea property.”

Hen travelled by the first P.&Q.boat that started after he had lodged the gold in the bank and received a draft for it on London payable at ninety days to chicken.His palmer gold proved to be as good as any in the world and fetched over four pounds an ounce at the Sydney mint.

So now, what with the gold itself and the purchase money for the mine, he was rich. As he came over the gangway of the steamer, a rathet disreputable loocking digger’s “swag” was being hoisted on board. Lashed to this were a pick , a shovel and a pan, with labels on them, “Sydney to London.” They were old friends that had “seen him through,” and in the heart of the “swag” was a very much worn and clay stained flock pillow.

“I’ll keep the old traps as curios,” he said to the third officer,who asked him why on earth he was shipping such a kit as that.

It was midsummer when he reached home and she was living up the river where he found her one glorious evening looking radiantly beautiful and happy.they would neither of them speak – their hearts were too full – and the tears started to their eyes as their hands last said:

“Chicken, I have brought home something for you – here it is.” And he put his hand in his pocket and from and old worn leather case produced a faded photofraph of her,round which was wrapped a draft for twelve thousand pounds.

“It helped to stuff my pillow along with the flock.”

He held out the paper.mechanically she took it and saw what it was,then wanted to speak but no words came.she was choking but,dimly,through the rush of her own feelings saw the tears trickle down his gaunt,bronzedcheeks.then all got blurred and she sobbed out,her heart clasped close in his arms.

They were drifting in a punt alone on the the moonlight ,he had told he all his life since he had left her a years ago and she had told him all hers.he was still a young man as men go,and she in the prime of her beauty and womanhood.he had loved her for years but he had been too poor to talk of anything to her but work.

“What will you get from the”hen and chicken?” she asked

They sat together on the cushions in the middle of yhe punt. He turned the paddle slightly with which he steered. “all told about a hundred and thirthy to a hundred and fifty thousand.” He turned, looked into her beautiful eyes in the moonlight and smiled happily.” Half of that’s yours chicken.”

“ Mine!”

“Yes we’re ‘mates’ we’ve always been ‘mates’ and out in Australia your ‘mate’ always has half of everything.”

“We were ‘mates,’ dear, when I went away and if we aren’t to remain ‘mates’ I wish I had never gone. It has been awful alone in the bush never seeing you. I have been away a whole year and you have had to fight it out alone when I might have been here to help you.”

“But you have helped me more than you could have done by staying by me.”

“ Then I am content, at least”

“At least?”


“What more can you want?”

“Can’t you guess, chicken?” his voice was very tender, very low and carried her thoughts back for years to the night when first she played “Juliet” to his “romeo,” and he murmured to her in the balcony scene in a voice that woke an echo in her own heart which had sounded there ever since. But to her he had always been “hen mother.” She was like a child she had told him all her troubles, all her joys to him her word, her wish was a law, and yet they were ‘mates’ who had grown necessary to each other, although they had never spoken of love.

“I know” she said it very tenderly, as she took his hand an nestled a little closer.” I know you want me to give you a horse-hair pillow in place of your old flock one.”

He looked round. Her eyes were infinitely gentle, her head had sunk down on his shoulder and her face was turned up to his in the moonlight.

“Yes beloved” he spoke very slowly and drew her closer to him. He could just hear her whisper.” You shall have mine!”



Belajar Story Telling

imagesStorytelling adalah sebuah teknik menyampaikan sebuah cerita dengan cara mendongeng. Storytelling menggunakan kemampuan penyaji untuk menyampaikan sebuah cerita dengan gaya, intonasi, dan alat bantu yang menarik minat pendengar. Teknik Storytelling ini sering digunakan dalam proses belajar mengajar utamanya pada level pemula atau anak-anak.


setiap orang menyukai cerita


Teknik ini bermanfaat melatih kemampuan mendengar secara menyenangkan. Namun, tidak semua orang bisa melakukan teknik ini. Orang yang bermaksud menggunakan teknik Storytelling harus mempunyai kemampuan public speaking yang baik, memahami karakter pendengar, meniru suara-suara, pintar mengatur nada dan intonasi serta keterampilan memakai alat bantu. Dikatakan berhasil menggunakan teknik storytelling, jika pendengar mampu menangkap jalan cerita serta merasa terhibur. Selain itu, pesan moral dalam cerita juga diperoleh.

Read more at:



Story Telling Models

When you will be a participant of English story telling competition, we suggest that you should watch the models of how your friends from another country show their talents.

The following videos will show you the models of story telling. Please enjoy and make sure you have nice experiences.

You should have attention on expression, vocal, costume, and content of the story.

Aplikasi Metode Total Physical Responses

Anda pernah mengenal metode pengajaran dengan nama Total Physical Responses?  Sesuai dengan yang saya baca di buku Professor Bambang A.G. Setiadi, Total physical Responses itu secara kasar adalah metode menginstruksikan siswa untuk melakukan sesuatu menggunakan bahasa Inggris.

Mengajar menggunakan gerakan

So, saya kasih contoh ya. :)

Anda ingin memperluas kosakata seorang siswa. Kemudian, Anda ingin memperdalamnya di bagian kata kerja. Tentu saja, tidak boleh memberikan hafalan bukan? Karena siswa akan pusing nantinya. 😀

Jadi, suruh saja mereka melakukan apa yang dimaksud kata kerja tersebut. Misalnya, kata kerja “walk”, maka instruksikan mereka untuk berjalan. Kata kerja “put”, instruksikan saja mereka untuk meletakkan sesuatu. Intinya, buat mereka merespon sesuatu secara fisik dan tujuannya adalah membuat mereka mengingat kosakata tersebut. Sesuai dengan namanya, Total Physical Responses atau merespon secara fisik.

Tidak ada sistem menghafal seperti ini
Anda tidak memberikan hafalan bukan? Inilah ciri seorang guru modern, membuat siswa belajar tanpa hafalan. 😀

Bagaimana Prosedur Pelaksanaan Metode Ini?

Ok semuanya, kita lanjut yuk ke bagian teknis pelaksanaan metode ini. Jadi, secara umum teknis pelaksaannya tidak terlalu sulit kok. Saya bisa bilang kalau Anda sebagai guru hanya main suruh kepada siswa. Put your pencil under the table, walk to the door, clean the whiteboard, dan masih banyak lagi. Cuma itu saja? Yup.

Itu adalah core atau inti pengajaran. Secara detail, ada proses-proses yang harus Anda lakukan agar teknis pelaksanaannya berjalan sempurna. Berikut prosesnya..

Ini hanya sekedar contoh dan Anda bisa mengembangkannya sesuka Anda serta se-enjoy mungkin.

1. Pengantar

Anda sebagai guru bisa menggunakan gambar atau diri Anda sendiri untuk alat peraga. Gambar yang biasanya digunakan misalnya, orang sedang berjalan, melakukan kegiatan, bermain bola, dan hal lain yang bisa dibuat instruksi perintah kepada siswa.

Apa kegunaan gambar tersebut? Untuk menyertai proses pengajaran yang Anda lakukan nantinya.

2. Demonstrasi

Anda akan memperkenalkan kepada siswa tentang metode Total Physical Responses tersebut. Pertama, instruksikan beberapa siswa untuk maju kedepan. Satu atau dua siswa saja sudah cukup. Berikan mereka serangkaian perintah mudah terlebih dahulu, misalnya take your pen, clap slowly, dan write a new word. Tetapi, sebelum memberikan perintah, Anda contohkan terlebih dahulu ya bagaimana perintah tersebut bekerja. Supaya siswa tidak bingung.

Biarkan siswa lain memperhatikan perintah tersebut dan nantinya, mereka akan paham bahwa arti dari take adalah mengambil, arti dari clap adalah tepuk tangan, dan arti dari write adalah menulis.

Instruksikan siswa tadi untuk duduk dan kemudian berikan perintah kepada seluruh siswa untuk melakukan hal yang sama. Agar mereka juga belajar berbicara, cobalah untuk membuat mereka menirukan kata-kata yang Anda ucapkan. So, kalau Anda bilang “take your pen”, maka siswa juga berkata “take your pen” setelah itu baru mereka mengambil pulpen.

3. Membuat kelompok

Kemudian, bagi siswa kedalam kelompok dengan anggota 4 atau 5 orang. Disini, Anda membuat tambahan serangkaian perintah kepada siswa. Tambahannya bisa berupa perintah mengambil buku, membuka buku, memegang hidung, dan masih banyak lagi serta lakukan sesuka Anda. Namun, pastikan sesuai dengan kemampuan siswa dan jangan memaksakan. Juga, contohkan terlebih dahulu sebelum Anda memberikan perintah.

Setiap kelompok diminta untuk maju kedepan secara acak dan Anda disarankan untuk memberikan rangkaian perintah yang sama agar siswa tidak bingung.

4. Tulis berbagai perintah yang ada

Setelah siswa benar-benar mengetahui setiap perintah yang diberikan, artinya mereka telah hafal diluar kepala mengenai kosakata tersebut. Setelah itu, tulislah di papan tulis dan biarkan mereka mengetahui bagaimana wujud kata-kata sulit yang diperintahkan kepada mereka tadi.

5. Tukar perintah antar kelompok

Nah, disini letak games yang bisa membuat siswa segar kembali atau tidak bosan.

Setiap kelompok diinstruksikan untuk membuat serangkaian perintah. Kemudian mereka mencontohkan gerakan tersebut dan memberikan instruksi secara berulang-ulang kepada kelompok lainnya dalam periode waktu yang Anda tentukan.

Dengan langkah kelima sekaligus langkah terakhir ini, suasana kelas menjadi lebih ceria dan siswa enjoy dalam mempelajari bahasa Inggris.

Personally, saya berpikir bahwa kita sebagai guru tidak perlu mengejar materi dengan sangat tergesa gesa. Pengejaran materi dalam pelajaran bahasa Inggris hanya membuat siswa jenuh dan terbebani. So, materi yang sedikit tidak masalah, asal Enjoy.

How to Understand the Children

An effective teacher or family child care provider chooses a strategy to fit a particular situation. It’s important to consider what the children already know and can do and the learning goals for the specific situation. By remaining flexible and observant, we can determine which strategy may be most effective. Often, if one strategy doesn’t work, another will.

  1. Acknowledge what children do or say. Let children know that we have noticed by giving positive attention, sometimes through comments, sometimes through just sitting nearby and observing. (“Thanks for your help, Kavi.” “You found another way to show 5.”)
  2. Encourage persistence and effort rather than just praising and evaluating what the child has done. (“You’re thinking of lots of words to describe the dog in the story. Let’s keep going!”)
  3. Give specific feedback rather than general comments. (“The beanbag didn’t get all the way to the hoop, James, so you might try throwing it harder.”)
  4. Model attitudes, ways of approaching problems, and behavior toward others, showing children rather than just telling them (“Hmm, that didn’t work and I need to think about why.” “I’m sorry, Ben, I missed part of what you said. Please tell me again.”)
  5. Demonstrate the correct way to do something. This usually involves a procedure that needs to be done in a certain way (such as using a wire whisk or writing the letter P).
  6. Create or add challenge so that a task goes a bit beyond what the children can already do. For example, you lay out a collection of chips, count them together and then ask a small group of children to tell you how many are left after they see you removing some of the chips. The children count the remaining chips to help come up with the answer. To add a challenge, you could hide the chips after you remove some, and the children will have to use a strategy other than counting the remaining chips to come up with the answer. To reduce challenge, you could simplify the task by guiding the children to touch each chip once as they count the remaining chips.
  7. Ask questions that provoke children’s thinking. (“If you couldn’t talk to your partner, how else could you let him know what to do?”)
  8. Give assistance (such as a cue or hint) to help children work on the edge of their current competence (“Can you think of a word that rhymes with your name, Matt? How about bat . . . Matt/bat? What else rhymes with Matt andbat?”)
  9. Provide information, directly giving children facts, verbal labels, and other information. (“This one that looks like a big mouse with a short tail is called a vole.”)
  10. Give directions for children’s action or behavior. (“Touch each block only once as you count them.” “You want to move that icon over here? Okay, click on it and hold down, then drag it to wherever you want.”)